G. Alcan, E. Yilmaz, M. Unel, V. Aran, M. Yilmaz, C. Gurel, K. Koprubasi
9th IFAC International Symposium on Advances in Automotive Control (AAC 2019) Orléans, France, June 23-27, 2019
IFAC-PapersOnLine, Volume 52, Issue 5, Pages 544-549
Publication date: September, 2019


In this paper, a new data-driven modeling of a diesel engine soot emission formation using gated recurrent unit (GRU) networks is proposed. Different from the traditional time series prediction methods such as nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous input (NARX) approach, GRU structure does not require the determination of the pure time delay between the inputs and the output, and the number of regressors does not have to be chosen beforehand. Gates in a GRU network enable to capture such dependencies on the past input values without any prior knowledge. As a design of experiment, 30 different points in engine speed – injected fuel quantity plane are determined and the rest of the input channels, i.e., rail pressure, main start of injection, equivalence ratio, and intake oxygen concentration are excited with chirp signals in the intended regions of operation. Experimental results show that the prediction performances of GRU based soot models are quite satisfactory with 77% training and 57% validation fit accuracies and normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) values are less than 0.038 and 0.069, respectively. GRU soot models surpass the traditional NARX based soot models in both steady-state and transient cycles.


  • Diesel Engine
  • Combustion Process
  • Soot Emission
  • Experiment Design
  • Gated Recurrent Unit


  title={Estimating Soot Emission in Diesel Engines Using Gated Recurrent Unit Network},
  author={Alcan, Gokhan and Yilmaz, Emre and Unel, Mustafa and Aran, Volkan and Yilmaz, Metin and Gurel, Cetin and Koprubasi, Kerem},